Vladimir Lenin once said, “A lie told often enough becomes the truth.” (Hmmmm….. did Lenin really say that, or has it just been credited to him so often it’s assumed to be true??) This may be exactly what’s going on with The Great Tertiary Color Debate!
So, what is a tertiary color and why should we care??
To make sense of the whole tertiary color conundrum, you just need a basic understanding of the color wheel…
The artist has three primary colors – red, yellow, and blue; the colors which cannot be mixed from other colors.
Then the secondary colors, orange, green, and violet, are made by mixing two primary colors together (red + yellow = orange; yellow + blue = green; blue + red = violet).
Most everyone agrees on that much. The rest should be just as straightforward, but sadly it’s not.
Two additional color mixtures our students need to know are intermediate colors and tertiary colors.
In her classic book, Art Is Fundamental, Eileen S. Prince explains that
“An intermediate color is made by mixing uneven amounts of two primary colors. The same result can be achieved by mixing a primary with a related secondary (a secondary next to it on the color wheel).”
Ralph Fabri, author of COLOR: A Complete Guide for Artists, expands on this idea, saying,
“Depending on how much of each primary is in these mixtures, the result can be a yellow-orange or a red-orange, a yellow-green or a blue-green, a blue-violet or a red-violet.”
Intermediate colors are always named with the primary color first and the secondary color second. It’s easy to see how an understanding of intermediate colors would be helpful when mixing colors or when talking about color.
Next are the tertiary colors. According to Eileen S. Prince,
“A tertiary is made by mixing two secondaries.”
This is the same definition we find on Dictionary.com (based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2016):
tertiary color (noun)
1. a color, as brown, produced by mixing two secondary colors.
Here’s how Ralph Fabri defines tertiary colors:
“Any two secondary colors mixed together form a tertiary color.” He further explains, “Consider that when you mix violet and green, you actually mix red and blue with blue and yellow. A mixture of orange and green consists of red and yellow, and yellow and blue. A tertiary obtained from violet and orange contains blue and red, mixed with red and yellow. In other words, each tertiary contains two portions of one color, and one portion each of two other colors.”
So, you could say that in its simplest form, a tertiary color contains some combination of all three primary colors. Since the term “tertiary” relates to having three parts, that makes sense to me.
Why is it important for our students to know this? Because mixing the three primaries (or mixing any color with its complement – the color directly across from it on the color wheel, thus mixing all three primaries) will result in a neutral (grayish or brownish) version of the dominant color. Knowing how to tone down a color (or how not to, if that’s not what you’re trying to do!) is an important skill for any painter.
Makes sense so far, right?? Well, herein lies the great debate…. Somewhere along the line, people started referring to intermediate colors as tertiary colors, leaving the true tertiary colors out of the conversation completely! Combine this with how quickly information (true or false) spreads on the internet, and it becomes hard to know what to believe anymore!
We’ve all heard that we can’t assume everything we read on the internet is true, and this Merriam-Webster definition is a perfect example.
: a color produced by mixing two secondary colors
: a color produced by an equal mixture of a primary color with a secondary color adjacent to it on the color wheel
These two definitions are actually in conflict with each other! The first definition is correct, but definition #2 would produce an intermediate color, not a tertiary!
Yet, if you go to tertiary color on Merriam-Webster’s site and scroll down, you’ll see that their “Medical Definition” is the correct one. (How this is used in medicine, I have no idea!)
: a color produced by mixing two secondary colors
Not to put all the blame on Merriam-Webster, this confusion can be found all over the internet and even in some of the newer books on color theory.
To sum it all up, here’s Eileen S. Prince again:
“Intermediates are bright, pure colors, such as red-orange or blue-green. Tertiaries are dull colors with names like olive or bronze (orange plus green), slate (green plus violet), or russet (orange plus violet)….. Many websites and other sources now define them interchangeably. They will tell you that the term “tertiary” can refer to a color made by mixing two secondaries or it can be another word for an intermediate. How is this possible? The results are totally different! I urge you to teach the true definitions of these terms.”
So, when Merriam-Webster can’t even decide what the correct definition is, you can see that there’s plenty of confusion on this topic! Then every website and blogger who takes a stand on one side or the other (like me!), keeps it going….
It’s your turn to weigh in! How would you define tertiary color and how would you back up your claim? I’d love to hear your thoughts in the comment section below!